Salai Van Lian Thang: Aung San Thawngin Chinmi Nih Independence Kan Ngah Lo

Caang 1nk

Buchoh Aung San hi Kawlmi hruaitu lak ahcun ka uarbik asi rih ko. Cucu a ruang pahnihthum a um.

1. Miphun Dawtnak a ngei

2. PIAT-TA-HMUH (frankness) le raltthatnak lungput

3. Lungthiannak le dinfelnak (honesty and integrity)

4. Unity in Diversity a pomnak lungput

5. Secular State policy a lungput

6. Ethnic History a hman tein a cohlan khawhnak lungput, an si.

Cucaah ka upatmi hruaitu cu asi ve. Nain, Bochoh Aung San thawngin Independence kan hmuh, i kan upat awk asi, timi cu ka pawm kho deuh lo.

1. 1928 ah Mr. Clement Attlee (Tlangval note MP silio) hi Simon Commission (Statutory Commission) ah Britain cozah nih India ramah (India le Kawlram komh lio) an rak thlahmi pasarih lakah Labour Party in MP aa telmi asi. Hi lio tein India le Kawlram independence pek hi fak ngaiin a rak dirpi cang. Cu Commission result cu India Act 1935 le Burma Act 1935 kha asi. Hi pa hi cu Independence hi tuan tein pek a duh cangmi kha asi. (John Bew (2017). Clement Attlee: The Man Who Made Modern Britain cauk kha rel khawh asi).

2. WW II a dih, Mr. Clement Attlee cu 1945 Great Britain Election ah Labour Party in PM candidate a hun si. Hi lio Election i Labour Party Election Manifesto cu an ukmi colony ram pawl Independence pek ding ti khi asi. Winston Churchill hruaimi ruling Conservative Party cu landslide bakin a tei. Zeicatiah ni a tla lomi colony ram uk rih ding Conservative Party policy kha Britain mipi nih an ei khawh ti lo caah asi. Churchill hi an uar tuk ko, nain fak ngaiin cucaah an thlak. Attlee cu PM thar a hung si. Cozah a hun ser. Kawlram le India independence pek khi cu tuan le tlai thil men khi asi cang. (WW II dihka Winston Churchill policy cu Ministerial Burma hi White Paper Policy in dominion status pek. Cun Tlangmi Frontier Areas (Shan, Kachin, Chin) hi cu anmah nih uk rih, ral lio ah a rawkralmi remhpiak in hnuah luatnak pek te ding phun khi asi. Nain, Attlee a kai in Governor thar Hubert Rance a ra i, White Paper policy cu aa thleng dih. Clement Attlee policy ningin tuan le tlai independence khi asi cang).

3. Election Manifesto ningin PM Attlee nih 20 Dec. 1946 ah House of Commons (Parliament) hitin a chim, “we do not desire to retain within the Commonwealth and Empire and unwilling peoples. It is for the people of Burma to decide their own future but we are certain that it will be to their interest as it will be to ours if they decide to remain within the Commonwealth”. Kawlram independence pek ding kha fiang tein Parliament ah a thanh cang. Ho nih nor len khi a hau mi asi ti lo.

4. Nain, PM Clement Attlee nih Buchuh Aung San hruaimi Ministerial Burma hruaitu (Executive Council) member lawng kha Sept. 1947 ah London ah Independence pek ding a fiang cangmi kha zeitindah lakning asi lai timi ceihpi dingah cun a sawm hna. Hi Kawlrawn Ministerial Burma cozah chungah Tlangmi hruaitu (Karen tbk) an um nain Kawl lawnglawng London cun a kalpi hna, a dohtu U Saw le Basein tbk hmanh a telh nain. PM Attlee zong nih Frontier Areas (Shan, Kachin, Chin) hruaitu cu a kan sawm ve hoi lo. Cucaah Shan sawbua le Frontier Areas Admin. Director nih London leiah thilhri an tuk colh phah kha asi, Buchoh Aung San nih kan aiawhnak nawl a ngei lo i biachimnak nawl a ngei lo tiin. Khakha a hmanmi cu a rak si. Kan kong chimnak nawl khi a ngei taktak lo (he had no mandate to speak on behalf of Frontier Areas).

5. Hi London Meeting ah Burma Delegation hi London ah saupi an cam i, Memorandum le Statement voi thum tiang Britian cozah cu an pek. Voikhat an pek, Britain cozah nih a leh, cun statement an pek tthan tiin voi tampi an iceih. Cu an memorandum chungah independence pek le pek lo khi asi ti lo. Zeitindah independence kan lakning asi lai, constituent assembly election zeitin kan tuah lai, constitution zeitin kan suai lai, Frontier Areas he independence lakti kong zeitin kan ceih lai, transitional government zeitin a kal lai, tbk khi asi cang. Chim duhmi cu: Labour Party le Attlee Cozah policy ningin Frontier Areas (Chin, Shan, Kachin) caah independence cu Buchoh Aung San hal zong khi a hau ti lo, duhcun lak le lak lo lawng khi a tang cangmi asi.

6. Cun WW II a dih hnucun vawlei chantiluan ningin UN and Decolonization policy ningin independence cu Tlangmi nih hmuh thotho ding khi asi fawn. Cucaah kan duh le Kawl he kan ikomh kho, kan duh le khuathlang kan unau he kan um kho, kan duh le kanmah tein indepennce kan lak kho, kan duh le UN zohkhenhnak tangah kan um kho, thim awk khi tampi kan rak ngei ko (kan hruaitu pawl hi rak fit ngai hna seh law tampi khi option a rak um). Nain, a ruang tete ruangah Buchoh Aung San nih Panglong Conference ah Kawl he ramkomh dirhti dingin min kan thut cu asi ko. (Ngaingai cun Panglong kal hlante i Falam meeting kha kan zoh cun Laimi cu Mirang tangah um rih ding khi kan rak ti deuhmi asi. Nain, Shan le Kachin kha Panglong khua an phan hmasa i Kawl he komh ding an biachah cangmi kha Laimi hruaitu nih al lem ti loin kan hnatlak ve bia khi asi ko).

Cucaah Chin, Shan, Kachin Committee nih Panglong Conference ah Aung San-Attlee Agreement cu kanmah he zeihmanh pehtlaihnak ngei hlah seh, tiah piangko in Buchoh Aung San cu an rak ti. Cucu Buchoh Aung San nih ttha tein a pom vemi asi. Phundang cun: Attlee cozah le Kawlrawn cozah (Buchoh Aung San’s delegation) nih London ah independence lakning kong an ceihmi vialte kha cu Tlangmi he zeihmanh pehtlaihnak khi a ngei ti lomi khi asi cang. Cu sullam cu: anmah independence halmi cu kanmah he pehtlaihnak a ngei ti lo.

Cucaah Buchoh Aung San ruangah Independence kan hmu timi hi cu biatlam a tling lomi khi asi. Kanmah nih anmah he komhin independence lak kan hnatlak caah rang deuhin (speedily achieved independence) tu khi asi ko. Kanmah thawngin independence tuan deuhin an ngah ve tu khi asi. Cucu Panglong Agreement ah ttha tein aa tialmi kha asi. A mah nih a hal zongah, hal lo zongah a hmu thotho tuk ding dirhmun khi kan rak si. Nain, Kawlram ah ca kan cawn cun a mah thawng lawnglawng in independence hmuhmi bantuk in cawn asi i, tuchun mino le upa tampi zong hitin khua kan ruahnak hi asi ko rua lai. Cucu a palhmi asi.

Cucaah Lairam ah Buchoh Aung San milem phun khi Laimi mit in cuanh cun, a herh lo ngaimi khi asi. Cu hmanh ah, party budget asi lo, mipi ngunkhuai (Sipin Budget) in asi tikah asi awk asi lo, khunmi khi asi. GAD hi cu Central Home Ministry tangah a um i phundang te asi ton. Nain, Sipin hi cu State Cozah tang leuleu ah a ummi asi. Cucaah Sipin nih hithil an kalpi cu ruah awk tampi khi a um rua ka ti. Phundang cun: Chin State NLD Cozah nih tuahmi bantuk khi asi cang caah ruahawk a um deuh cu asi.

Cucaah Party Budget in an tuah cun a poi ka ti lem lo nain, cozah budget in cozah policy in Tlangcungmi khuapi tampi ah hi thil an kalpi cu tulio cun ka uar lo ngaingai.

Mi tampi nih hihi cu a poi lem lo, an ti. Nain, hi milem phen i a ummi khuaruahnak le thil vialte khi kan duhlomi, miphun mit cun ralrin a hau ngai rihmi le a poimi thil cu an rak si kho. Cu a phen i a ummi khi kan hmuh khawh lo cun kan tai in a cunglei cu an kan dolh pah hnik cang tinak khi asi ko rua hnga. Cucaah kan irem dih khawh hlan, tulio ”political dialouge” lio le bang ahcun ”serious” ngaiin ruahawk kha asi ve ko i, tlangmi miphun dang nih an khuapi ah bunh an timh tikah an doh ve khi sullam tampi (political meanings) a ngei dihmi an si.

Philh lo awk cu hihi asi. Buchoh Aung San he a nunnak a liammi Martyrs pasarih lakah Tlangmi hruaitu pahnih––Manh Ba Khaing le Sao San Tun an itel ve. Hihi an mah tlukin upat a tlak thotho vemi kan hruaitu hna an si. Laimi kan hruaitu paralttha hna cu chim a hau ti lomi kha asi.

Caang 2nak

Bochoh Aung San independence a laknak cu Aung San-Atlee Agreement hin asi (Mirang doh hi cu Laimi pupa zong a mah tlukin an doh cio ko, amahnak temtuar zong an um lai). Cu Aungsan-Attlee Agreement cu Panglong Conference ah kan pupa nih “kan pawm lo, kanmah he ipehtlaih hlah seh” tiah piang koin an ti cangmi kha asi. Bochoh Aung San zong nih a al ti lomi hna khi asi. Cucu U Pe Khin (Muslim pa, Phah-Sah-Pah-Lah nih Tlangmi kongkau pehtlaih dingin an thimmi upa, Bochuh Aung San he Panglong a kal timi a hawikom, U Nu chan Vuanci, hnuah Pakistan ambassador ) cauk “ကုိယ္ေတြ႔ ပင္လုံ” p. 50 ah fiang tein a tial (ka thil chih).

Kan pupa nih Aung San-Attle agreement hi an rak pom lo ngaimi le hlotmi asi. Kawl an independence khelmi le kanmah tlangmi kongkau kha kha lio dirhmun cun pakhat hmanh pehtlaihter khi an duh lo. Phundangpi khi kan rak si. Cucaah kan pupa nih Panglong Conference lioah “Aung San nih independence a lak––Aung San-Attlee agreement” timi an hlot cang i an cohlan ti lomi, Buchoh Aung San zong nih al awk khin a ruah lo i a cohlan vemi, cu tuni ah Tlangmi mino tampi nih “Independence kan hero asi” tiah kan uar ngaimi hi cu tuanbia “study” lo rumro le fianlo rumro khi asi ko rua. Kan pupa hna kha nung rih hna sehlaw zeitindik an ti hna hnga ka ti.

Cu nak a pawimi cu hi dar milem phen a ummi, kum 70 chung kan dohmi Tlangmi caah khuaruahnak le zumhnak hman lo, kan caah tih a nungmi, kan hmuh khawh lomi khi a hei si. Cucaah hi bantuk thil hmanh ah a tak kho lomi thisa cu “federalism & self-determination” zongah an tak ngaingai bal lo, tulio political dialogue hna khin to ve hna seh law bialo khi kan chuak lai dah ka ti––a cungpar phen in an au ve sawh i asi ko rua dah. Cun genuin Union taktak dirh khawh hlan i Union Spirit hna ngeih dingin aupi len khi cu tulio Tatmadaw nih ”ျပည္ေထာင္စု စိတ္ဓာတ္ ေမြးပါ” an timi he dannak a ngei rua lo dah ka ti.

Caang 3nak

Tial lawlaw ah tlawmpal ka chap rih lai. A relmi nih rel te ko hna seh law. Panglong Agreement hnu a ra colhmi cu 1947 Constitution kha asi. Bochuh Aung San hi Drafting Committee upa le လမ္ညြန္ ေကာ္မတီ hruaitu asi (A thih hnu U Nu le Chan Htoon nih tampi an remh nain a principle cu a ning tein asi). 1947 Constitution ttha tein rel ahcun Laimi ca ahcun lung a ttha lo ngai. ခ်င္းလူငယ္မ်ားအၾကံေပးခ်က္ ah “ထပ္ဆင့္ နိမ့္က်ပုံ” an tial nain duhning in lungfahnak hmanh khi an chimphuang lo ka ti. Miphun dang hmaiah tangah (political status) an kan thlaakmi a niamning khi lung lei a ttha lo.

Panglong Agreement minthu miphun, Union of Burma dirhtu miphun, zeitikhmanh seino nih kan philh awk khi asi lai lo. State Legislative List an sermi nih khan kan nih cu a kan huap ve lo. Kanmah chapter ah mah nawl kha kan ngei ve lo. Kan “political status” a niamning khi, khuaruah har lei a rak si––pohmah tlawmte khi kan chapter ah an hei tial sawh ve khi asi ko––tial rumro lo nak cun tiin. Statehood pek khi le an duh lo, Kawl tangah District Level men chiah le an i thlachiat fawn, a um bal lomi “Special Division” timi min an kan phuahpiak cop chommi min hrim hin kan cungah an lungput khi hmailei pi tiang philh awk a ttha lo ding khi asi. Kawl hruaitu upa cheukhat an zernak zong hi zon hin fiang tein a langmi khi asi.

Cun, Kachin chapter zoh khin, zeitlukdah Kachin State i betmi Kawl miphun hna an ven hna, timi khi an khuaruahnak in tlaih khawh ngai asi. Kachin misa MP 6, Kachin asi lomi MP 6 bak Kachin State in asi lai, Kachin mi asi lomi Kachin state ummi hna (Kawlmi) hmun ah anmah MP biaruah loin thil nan tuah lai lo, anmah Kachin asilomi MP hna pompinak long in thil nan tuah lai, ti bantuk khin biatak tein upadi in Kawlmi le Kawlmi cu Phunghrampi in iveng, anmah miphun kha. Cun independence hlan London Talk lio i Burma Delegation’s General Statement II ah Chinmi phun Mirang nih ca an kan serpiakmi (Romanised Chin script) hna khi “complain” an kai cuh.

Prime Minister Attlee hmaiah. Lingua Franca ah Kawl holh a hmang ko dingmi, ti khi kan rak si. Hi lioah Burmanization hi aa phum tuk cangmi khi a rak si. Cun Mirang nih Lairam ah Christian missionaries cu usa nan pek hna i, Buddhist missionary cu nan thlei dan hna, tiah “complain” an kan rih cuh. Cucu Bochoh Aung San (draft) mi statement le amah hrim nih Britain cozah, PM Attlee hmai a chimmi bia khi asi. Cu bantuk ruahnak cu Bochoh Aung San chan in a rak um diam cangmi asi kha tuni ah mino nih kan “study” bal lem rua lo––a “yoh-tuh” hna kan her uar ngai salami hi cu zeikhidik ka lawhter.

Theihternak: Salai Van Lian Thang nih Salai Lian Ding Hmung caṭialmi “Aung San milem nakin kanmah Chin paralttha hna milem kan herh deuh” timi ah comment a pekmi si. A rel duhmi kan tampi lai tiah kan ruah caah kan hung share chin.

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